Ergot alkaloid occurrence in fungi

of sodmin |

Basis for this article is an entry in CHRISTIAN RÄTSCHS encyclopedia, which is a table of some psychoactive mutterkornalkaloidhaltigen molds (Rätsch 1998: 693). Rätsch, the data the article "Aspergillus fumigatus Fres. 1:1 taken from G "by GIORGIO Samorini (Samorini 1997). However, some of SAMORINIS data is not entirely correct, so that it is objective of this work, Light in the jungle the taxonomy of fungi and of what is commonly referred to as bringing 'mold' and on this basis to develop the world of psycho-pharmacologically active smear flora concise manner systematically.


The molds are taken in botany in no separate classification. Tear In 1986, a feature-based definition by common intersection written, after which characterize molds in that they

  • live on the ground or in concentrated nutrient solutions
  • can live as saprophytes and by the decomposition of dead organic Substancesfeed
  • form a true mycelium. In contrast to the yeasts, which only form cell aggregates.
  • reproduce mainly asexually by spores (sporangiospores or conidia)
  • no or only very small form sexual reproductive organs

Reiss noted in addition:

"By this definition, you can almost all Imperfect Mushrooms fit into this category - many Ascomycota, some stand and fire mushrooms. " (Zip 1986)

 

Taxonomy of fungi

I fungi Similar Protisten

I.1 Oomycota (Algenpilze)

II. Fungi

II.1 Zygomycota (Jochpilze)

II.2 Ascomycota (Ascomycota)

II.3 Basidiomycota (Stand mushrooms)

III.4 Deuteromycetes (Fungi imperfecti)

The relevance for us all come from the kingdom of fungi Fungi, But only three sections, namely Ascomycota (Aspergillus spp., Geotrichum spp., Penicillium spp., Phoma spp., Pichia spp. andTrichocoma spp.), The Zygomycota (Rhizopus spp. and Mucor spp.) And the Deuteromycota (Isariopsis spp.)

 

Aspergillus spp.

  • Department: Ascomycota
  • Class: Ascomycetes
  • Order: Eurotiales
  • Family: Eurotiaceae
  • Genus: Aspergillus

Ergot alkaloid-producing species:

  • Aspergillus clavatus Desmaz.
  • Ingredient: Lysergsäure
  • Aspergillus conical Bloch
  • Ingredient: Clavinalkaloide
  • Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius
  • Ingredients: Agroclavin, Elymoclavin, Festuclavin, Fumigaclavin
  • Aspergillus nidulans (Eidam) Wint.
  • Ingredient: Clavinalkaloide
  • Aspergillus versicolor (Vuill.) Tirab.
  • Ingredient: Clavinalkaloide


Aspergillus spp. are known as watering cans or piston mold and form on like, stored in a warm and humid environment, food or food particles with a water content of 15 to 20% at a prevailing air humidity of 50% and more. AspergillusSpecies cover in the course of their propagation, the infested food or animal feed with a black, yellow or bluish green mold covering.

 

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Geotrichum spp.

  • Department: Ascomycota
  • Class: Saccharomycetes
  • Order: Saccharomycetales
  • Family: Dipodascaceae
  • Genus: Geotrichum

Ergot alkaloid-producing species:

  • Geotrichum candidum Link.
  • Ingredients: Ergosin, Agroclavin, Elymoclavin, Lysergsäure

    Geotrichum species, the most well known species Geotrichum candidum is the (white mold), do not form a budding cells and infect mainly milk and dairy products such as yogurt, cottage cheese and cheese, but also fruits and tomatoes. During the production of cheese the mold even plays a crucial role by drawing partly responsible for the formation of the flavor of Camembert or Harzer Roller. Geotrichum spp. are characterized primarily by their decaying into rectangular arthrospores hyphae. The above milk mold is even found in human intestine: Approx. 30% of stool samples from healthy volunteers and about 60% of the samples of gastrointestinal patients Geotrichum candidum contained (Seeliger et Heymer 1981).

     

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    Isariopsis spp.

    • Department: Deuteromycota
    • Class: Necklaces
    • Order: Bell Style Ales
    • Family: Stilbellaceae
    • Genus: Isariopsis

    Ergot alkaloid-producing species:

    • Griseola Isariopsis SACC.
    • Ingredient: Clavinalkaloide

    Isariopsis is a relatively rare and unknown species. Synonym is Phaeoisariopsis (Isariopsis griseola Sacc. = Phaeoisariopsis griseola (Sacc.) Ferr.). The interesting for us is kind Isariopsis griseola as "Angular leaf spot disease" and known attacks with preference Plant, z.B. Phaseolus-Bohnen.

     

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    Mucor spp.

    • Department: Zygomycota
    • Order: Mucorales
    • Family: Mucoraceae
    • Genus: Mucor

    Ergot alkaloid-producing species:

    • Mucor hiemalis Wehm.
    • Ingredient: Ergosin
    • Mucor subtilissimus Berk.
    • Ingredient: Clavinalkaloide

    The genus Mucor lives on the ground and attacks depending on the species primarily fermented foods, rotting fruits, vegetables, grains and seeds as well as animal excrement and interior paints or wallpaper. As Mykoseerreger include Mucor spp. to the resistant species.

     

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    Penicillium spp.

    • Department: Ascomycota
    • Class: Euascomycotes
    • Order: Eurotiales
    • Family: Eurotiaceae
    • Genus: Penicillium

    Ergot alkaloid-producing species:

    • Penicillium aurantio-virens Biourge
    • Ingredients: Agroclavin, Elymoclavin, Penniclavine
    • Penicillium chermesinum Biourge
    • Ingredient: Costaclavin
    • Penicillium expansum Link.
    • Ingredient: Clavinalkaloide
    • Penicillium granulatum Bain.
    • Ingredient: Clavinalkaloide
    • Penicillium roqueforti Thom.
    • Ingredient: Festuclavin, Isofumigaclavin
    • Penicillium rugulosum Thom.
    • Ingredient: Clavinalkaloide

     

    The large genus of Penicillium molds, from which, among other things the famous penicillin was isolated, is divided into four sections (Asymmetrica, Biverticillata-Symmetrica, Monoverticillata and Polyverticillata), which in turn split into 41 series. The types like to settle in the interior to paint, wallpaper and on damp insulating material.

     

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    Phoma spp.

    • Department: Ascomycota
    • Class: Euascomycetes
    • Order: Pleosporales
    • Family: Pleosporaceae
    • Genus: Phoma

    Ergot alkaloid-producing species:

    • PHOMES medicaginis Malbranche et Roumeguere Syn.: Ascochyta imperfecta Peck Ingredient: Clavinalkaloide

    Phoma spp. are also known as Möhrenschorf. The fast-growing species, of which we are interested only the ergot alkaloid-producing Phoma medicaginis among the plant pathogens, so infested plants.

     

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    Pichia spp.

    • Department: Ascomycota
    • Class: Hemiascomycetes
    • Order: Saccharomycetales
    • Family: Endomycetaceae
    • Genus: Pichia

    Ergot alkaloid-producing species:

    • Pichia burtonii Boidin, Pignal, Lehodey, Vey et Abadie (Syn.: Dematium chodati Nechitsch)
    • Ingredient: Clavinalkaloide

    The teleomorph genus Pichia produced ascospores (= in the ascus sexually formed spores of Ascomycetes). Some species are used by the food industry as a yeast. In this connection, the occurrence of ergot alkaloid-containing species is of particular interest. However, the species Pichia burtonii is so far the only known psychoactives-producer of the genus.

     

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    Rhizopus spp.

    • Department: Zygomycota
    • Class: Phycomycetes
    • Order: Mucorales
    • Family: Mucoraceae
    • Genus: Rhizopus

     

    Ergot alkaloid-producing species:

    • Rhizopus arrhizus Fischer
    • Ingredient: Rhizopus nigricans fumigaclavine B Ehramb. Ingredient: Ergosinin, ergosine, agroclavine

    Rhizopus species are rotting pathogens and parasites, just like Claviceps spp. (Ergot) on field forage crops but also on berries, fruits, vegetables, and on wrong or too long stored bread. The genus is native throughout the world and is most common in the tropics and subtropics.

     

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    Trichocoma spp.

    • Department: Ascomycota
    • Class: Ascomycetes
    • Order: Eurotiales
    • Family: Onygenaceae
    • Genus: Trichocoma

     

    Ergot alkaloid-producing species:

    • Trichocoma paradoxa Jungh.
    • Ingredient: Clavinalkaloide

    Trichocoma is a small genus that is mainly native to the forest, more precisely in mixed forests, over which, however, virtually no information is available in German language. Trichocoma paradoxa is also called Shaving Brush Fungus' and has pink colored or brown spores.

     

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    Concluding Remarks

    This piece is not a complete outline of the botany and morphology of the treated fungal species, but it is merely a correction of the Samorini article from 1997 as well as a tool for further research dar. alone because of, present in addition to the Ergolinen, Mykotoxine1 should be on any self-tests necessarily be waived with mold species. However, as soon as I have myself whatsoever practical experience with this type of Psychonautika producers, a corresponding item in entheogens leaves is published.

    As an article by Christian Rätschs served "Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants" as a basic motivation for this text, I would be remiss not to quote something relevant themes from it.

    Dr. Rätsch has unearthed an interesting article entitled "The Secret of the Castle ghost", which seems more than fitting at this point. Let the reader be astonished to form an opinion.

    "The secret of the castle ghosts is solved! In castellated UK microbiologists have studied feuchtschimmelige Moder cellar where tiny fungi thrive with psychoactive effect. Inhalation of spores triggers hallucinations from - in other words, it is 'high' and think you see things that do not exist in reality "(On The Maur 1996; Rätsch 1998:693).

     

    References:

    Auf der Maur, Franz (1996), The Secret of the Castle Ghost, course 16/11: 30

    Berger, Mark (2003), Bacterium Psychoaktivum - Streptomyces rimosus - A mutterkornalkaloidhaltigesBakterium, entheogens Blätter (in press).

    Petrini, Liliane E., Petrini, Orlando (2002), molds and their determination, Berlin (among others): Cramer in the Gebr-Borntraeger-ET-Buchh, ISBN: 3443590969.


    Rätsch, Christian, Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants, Aarau: AT Verlag 1998

    Reiss, Jürgen (1968), Z. allg. Mikrobiol. 8, 301/459

    Zip, Jürgen (1998), molds - lifestyle, benefits, harm, fight, Berlin: Springer Roth, L., Frank, H., Kormann, K. (1990), toadstools, mushroom toxins: Molds, mycotoxins, occurrence, ingredients, fungal allergies , ecomed: Landsberg L.

    Seeliger, H.P.R. and Heymer, T. (1981), diagnosis of pathogenic fungi of man and his Umwelt.Lehrbuch and Atlas. Thieme, Stuttgart

    Samorini, Giorgio (1997), Aspergillus fumigatus Fres. G, Eleusis 8: 38-43Weidenbörner, Martin (1995), Handbook for the determination of frequently occurring fungi, Meckenheim: CENA

    Yamano, T.; Kishino, K.; Yamantodani, S.; Abe, M. (1962), Investigation on ergot alkaloids found in culturesof Aspergillus fumigatus, Takeda Kenkyusho Nempo (Jahresbericht der Takeda Forschungslabors) 21: 95

    Courtesy of Rhode Hartwin "entheogens leaves"

     

     

     


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